Cincinnati Enquirer — Bystanders in a Crowd: Main Street Shooting Among Many Similar Incidents

[Jeffrey] Butts is a research professor at the John John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. He said prevention efforts have focused on youth intervention and economic disparity. "That was all designed for a pre-pandemic world," Butts said. "An erosion of civilization happened with the pandemic. It seemed like society was coming apart. People were scared."

NPR — Michigan School Shooter is 1 of Thousands of U.S. Juveniles Charged as Adults in 2021

"If it's just supposed to send a message to that kid and all other people that we take this seriously and we're not going to stand for this behavior, therefore we're punishing you, then it accomplishes that purpose." But Butts says if the idea is to improve public safety or prevent future crime, decades of research show that is rarely the result.