Buck-Willison, Janeen, Daniel P. Mears, Tracey L. Shollenberger, Colleen Owens and Jeffrey A. Butts (2009). Past, Present, and Future of Juvenile Justice: Assessing the Policy Options (APO). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

This report presents the results of research that examined changing trends in juvenile justice legislation and surveyed juvenile justice professionals across the nation to measure their impressions of recent juvenile justice policy reforms. Researchers learned there is considerable consensus among diverse practitioner groups, with survey respondents viewing rehabilitative programs as more effective than punitive ones – a perspective consistent with recent legislative trends. Together, these data suggest the policy pendulum is swinging toward more progressive measures after years of “get tough” reforms.