Ira M. Schwartz, Martha Wade Steketee, and Jeffrey A. Butts (1991). Business as Usual: Juvenile Justice Policy During the 1980s. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 5 (2), 377–396.

The juvenile justice system during the 1980s failed to live up to the goals it set for itself during the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in the use of secure facilities.