Paul DeMuro and Jeffrey A. Butts (1990). Risk Assessment of Delinquent Offenders Committed to West Virginia Youth Correctional Facilities. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for the Study of Youth Policy.

With funding from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Center for the Study of Youth Policy conducted a risk assessment study of youth committed to the West Virginia juvenile justice system and found that the State was over-utilizing secure confinement for juveniles. Approximately half of the youths in the study sample could have been placed in community-based programs rather than in institutional settings.